CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG): the technology

CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) uses the advantages of CO2 as a geothermal working fluid to extract geothermal heat from naturally permeable reservoirs at ~2–5 km depth. Benefiting from increased mass flow due to its lower dynamic viscosity, the utilization of CO2 doubles to triples the geothermal energy extraction compared to brine. As CO2 is reinjected once the heat is extracted, all CO2 is permanently stored subsurface. Thereby, CPG turns CCS into true CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage)

Figure 1. Schematic of the CPG technology. After Randolph and Saar (2011), Adams et al. (2015, 2021), Garapati et al. (2015) and Fleming et al. (2020):

Since its inception in 2010 by Martin Saar and his team, the technology has secured 5 million USD in funding, resulting in patents and over 16 peer-reviewed publications.

Key CPG Publications

CPG Consortium

Following extensive theoretical research, the next step is demonstrating CPG in the field. For this reason, a CPG Consortium has been formed in March, 2023. Leveraging the synergies of an end-to-end integrated academic and industry consortium, CPG systems can be investigated and efficiently field-demonstrated at reduced individual partner cost.

The objective of the CPG consortium is to demonstrate the potential and technical feasibility of commercial-scale CPG to enable Final Investment Decisions (FIDs) on subsequent commercial scale projects.

In Phase I of the consortium, a CPG field demonstration is prepared to demonstrate the technical feasibility of CPG. We are investigating both the overall CPG potential, using our in-house techno-economic simulator, as well as detailed site evaluation studies for candidate field demonstrations. We also investigate facility and equipment optimization opportunities and CO2 processing requirements. Following this two-year Phase I, the consortium will select the optimal site and field demonstration concept to execute during the subsequent Phase II of the consortium.


Consortium Partners


Upcoming conferences

Following EGU in Vienna, where the CPG consortium presented ongoing research on the techno-economics, technology…

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CPG Consortium Research Team


Project Manager

Process Engineers

Daniel Pokras

All rights reserved – ETH Zürich Institute of Geophysics Geothermal Energy and Geofluids


ETH Zurich
Institute of Geophysics
Geothermal Energy and Geofluids

Sonneggstrasse 5
8092 Zurich


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